FANTOM5 Human Enhancers

The FANTOM5 consortium aimed to generate both a map of the majority of human promoters and comparative transcriptional regulatory network models of each cellular state. To achieve this they carried out CAGE sequencing on the Heliscope true single molecule sequencer on RNA isolated from every major human organ, over 200 cancer cell lines, 30 time courses of cellular differentiation, mouse developmental time courses and over 200 primary cell types. The result is a unique body-wide atlas focused specifically on core promoter utilization. Because active enhancer regions are transcribed, they identified a distinct bidirectional CAGE pattern, which could predict enhancer regions. It was established that enhancer transcription is a powerful proxy of cell-specific enhancer activity. This made it possible to define an enhancer atlas across the human body using the FANTOM5 panel of tissue and primary cell samples. Similar to promoters, for each enhancer we have a measure of expression within each primary cell and tissue and based on the expression levels. Thereby, an enhancer can be specific to a set of primary cells and organs (tissue samples) or can be broadly (or ubiquitously) expressed. In SlideBase, each such enhancer region with associated expression data is the unit that can be searched for.

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